By Na'im Akbar
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Extra info for Akbar Papers in African Psychology
Tion ofthe norma 1 casian ofEuro e escent >-::v' '" other eoples. This paradigm delimits the array of questions that may be raised in investigating the human being in their varied forms and sundry environments. Whether the investigation is anthropolo,gical, sociological or psychological, the nonnative model is the male Caucasian of European descent. S. " White is assumed to be "normal" and anything else is a deviation from that norm, and therefore designated as non, "" white. ~ The model dictated by this paradigm is one that has been identified as a "Eurocentric model" (Baldwin, 1976, 1980).
Dopamine is oxidized into norephinephrine and norephineprine is converted into epinephrine. Finally, epinephrine (or adrenaline) is converted into melanin. Norephineprine and epinephrine are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. The adrenal medulla secretes these in response to conditions of emotion or changes in the discharge of neurons in the automatic nervous system. Part of the autonomic nervous system (the sympathetic) accelerates the activity of all essential vital organs through the secretion of norephineprine.
I did not feel it appropriate to critique myself with the benefit of hind sight. My subsequent writings offered that critique as my ideas have evolved while remaining loyal to the original tenets that I sought to address. 31 Akbar Papers ill Aji-ican Psychology Paradigms Of African American Research (1989) There has been a growing awareness over the last twenty years that science is not sacrosanct. The recognition that science is a method and not the method of observation has increasingly . been suggested in the writings of philosophers of science, scientists and scholars in a wide variety of disciplines.