By Tom Lansford Ph.D.

This e-book analyzes the complicated reasons and results of the September eleven, 2001, terrorist assaults either locally and across the world, and examines the following wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.

• offers insightful charges from modern figures and first records starting from Osama bin Laden's 1998 fatwa opposed to the U.S. to the 2006 Iraq learn staff Report

• includes 12 biographies starting from Osama bin weighted down to George W. Bush that offer designated heritage on vital figures from the era

• offers a chronology of occasions from the Nineteen Seventies to the current day, together with occurrences resulting in the September eleven, 2001, assaults and the Iraq War

• incorporates a opt for bibliography of significant works at the September eleven, 2001, assaults; the conflict in Iraq; place of birth defense; and the battle on terror

• includes a precise word list of key words resembling "Shiite" and "weapons of mass destruction"

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Additional info for 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A Chronology and Reference Guide

Sample text

The Shoe Bomber In spite of the new airline security measures, al Qaeda attempted a bombing of a flight from Paris to Miami. There was a single terrorist involved: Richard Reid, a British citizen who had traveled to Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1999 and 2000, where he joined al Qaeda and received terrorist training. Bin Laden believed that Reid would receive less scrutiny than someone of Middle Eastern origin. On December 22, 2001, Reid boarded American Airlines Flight 63 in Paris. Reid’s shoes had plastic explosives in them, and he was supposed to detonate the bombs in a suicide attack.

On October 8, Bush created the Office of Homeland Security through Executive Order 13228. The new office was created to coordinate all domestic counterterrorism activities among 40 different federal bodies, including the response and recovery from the attacks. Specifically Bush wanted the new body to overcome the divisions between the existing law enforcement and intelligence agencies and to enhance intelligence and information sharing. Former Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge was appointed to lead the new body.

The plane struck the first floor at ground level, killing all onboard and igniting a massive fire with temperatures of more than 1,000° Fahrenheit. The airplane flew into an area that was undergoing renovations and therefore partially unoccupied. In addition, structural upgrades, including blast-resistant windows and steel reinforcements in the walls, helped minimize casualties. Nonetheless, the plane drove more than 300 feet into the building. The impact caused part of the outer rings of the building to collapse.

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